What is HDB Home Improvement Programme (HIP) in Singapore?
The HDB Home Improvement Programme (HIP) is a government initiative in Singapore aimed at enhancing the living conditions of HDB flat residents.
This program addresses common maintenance problems in older flats and provides essential upgrades to ensure a safe and comfortable living environment for residents.
Definition of Home Improvement Program (HIP)
The Home Improvement Program, commonly known as HIP, focuses on upgrading the essential features of HDB flats, such as toilets and ramps, in older housing blocks.
It includes both necessary improvements to address common maintenance issues and optional enhancements that residents can choose to install.
The essential improvements under HIP cover a range of areas, including upgrades to bathroom fittings, replacement of pipe sockets, and repairs to waterproofing systems.
These enhancements aim to rectify common maintenance problems faced by HDB flat residents, such as water leakage and structural cracks.
In addition to the essential improvements, HIP also offers optional upgrades tailored to the specific needs of residents.
These can include features like slip-resistant treatment, grab bars for the elderly, and customised ramps to facilitate easy access for residents with mobility challenges.
Benefits of Participating in a Home Improvement Program
Participating in the Home Improvement Program offers several benefits for HDB flat residents.
Here are some key advantages:
- Enhancement for active seniors: HIP provides enhancements that cater to the needs of elderly residents, such as slip-resistant treatment and grab bars. These features ensure the safety and well-being of seniors, allowing them to age in place comfortably.
- Addressing common maintenance problems: The essential improvements carried out under HIP address common maintenance issues faced by residents, including structural cracks and water leakage. These upgrades help to maintain the structural integrity of the flats and prevent further damage.
- Upgrading works for overall public health: The program includes upgrades to bathroom fittings and other essential features to improve public health and hygiene standards in HDB flats. This helps to create a healthier living environment for residents.
- Customised ramps for enhanced accessibility: HIP offers the option to install customised ramps for residents with mobility challenges. These ramps provide easy access to and from their flats, enhancing their mobility and independence.
Key Features of Home Improvement Program (HIP)
Here are some key features of the Home Improvement Program:
- CPF subsidies: Eligible HDB flat owners can utilize their Central Provident Fund (CPF) savings to help finance the HIP works.
- Resident poll: The decision to undergo HIP works is subject to a resident poll, where residents can vote on whether to participate in the program.
- Ease of improvements: HIP aims to make the upgrade process as seamless as possible for residents, with minimal disruption to their daily lives.
- Subsidies for slip-resistant treatment: Under HIP, slip-resistant treatment is provided for the floors of bathrooms and toilets, enhancing safety for residents.
- Availability by flat type: The implementation of the Home Improvement Program is carried out gradually by flat type, with all eligible flats expected to undergo HIP by 2023.
- Upgrades to refuse chute hoppers and electrical load: The program also covers upgrades to refuse chute hoppers and electrical load, ensuring a more efficient and sustainable living environment.
The Home Improvement Program in Singapore aims to enhance the living conditions of HDB flat residents by addressing common maintenance issues and offering essential upgrades.
The program caters to the needs of residents, particularly the elderly, by providing features that improve accessibility and ensure public health and safety standards.
- Purpose of HIP: The HDB Home Improvement Programme (HIP) in Singapore is a government initiative aimed at enhancing the living conditions of HDB flat residents, focusing on both necessary and optional upgrades to address common maintenance problems.
- Essential Improvements: HIP covers essential upgrades such as bathroom fittings, pipe socket replacements, and repairs to waterproofing systems to address issues like water leakage and structural cracks.
- Optional Enhancements: Residents can choose optional upgrades, including slip-resistant treatment, grab bars for the elderly, and customized ramps for improved accessibility.
- Benefits of Participation: Participating in HIP offers benefits like enhanced safety for seniors, addressing common maintenance problems, improvements in public health and hygiene standards, and customized accessibility features.
- Key Features of HIP:
- CPF subsidies for eligible flat owners.
- Resident poll for decision-making on participating in HIP.
- Minimal disruption to residents during the upgrade process.
- Subsidies for slip-resistant treatment to enhance safety.
- Implementation gradually by flat type, targeting completion by 2023.
- Upgrades to refuse chute hoppers and electrical load for efficiency.
- HIP and Public Housing: HIP is specific to public housing, focusing on providing ease of improvement for homeowners while maintaining a safe and comfortable living environment.
- Eligibility Criteria: To be eligible for HIP, homeowners must meet specific income requirements, with the program targeting lower-income households. The eligibility criteria also consider factors such as flat type and the cost of upgrading.
- Financial Assistance Options: HIP offers financial assistance through grants and loans. Grants fully fund essential improvements, while loans provide an alternative funding option for homeowners.
- Application Process:
- Check eligibility by ensuring Singapore citizenship, flat ownership, and meeting income ceiling requirements.
- Assess needed improvements and calculate estimated costs.
- Submit the application online or in person.
- Await approval before proceeding with improvements.
- Examples of Improvement Projects: Examples of improvements covered by HIP include addressing ceiling leaks, upgrading doors and windows, installing grab bars, grille gates for added security, and monthly instalment options for financing.
Popular Home Improvement Programs
HUD’s Home Improvement Programs
HUD (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) offers various home improvement programs that aim to improve public health and provide assistance to citizen households.
One common issue addressed by these programs is spalling concrete, which can cause structural problems in older homes.
HUD provides grants and loans to help homeowners repair or replace these damaged concrete areas.
Additionally, HUD offers aid for other home improvement needs such as clothes drying solutions, including clothes drying racks, to promote energy efficiency and safety in households.
The program also supports tile installation projects in aging flats, helping owners enhance the aesthetic appeal and functionality of their homes.
Overall, HUD’s home improvement programs offer viable options for homeowners to address technical reasons and ensure the well-being of elderly residents.
USDA’s Home Improvement Programs
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) provides a variety of home improvement programs, including the Home Improvement Program (HIP), which focuses on toilet upgrading for Singapore citizen households.
This program aims to improve the overall comfort and safety of homes by addressing issues such as ceiling leaks and outdated or malfunctioning fixtures.
The process of upgrading toilets under the HIP works is completed in a matter of days or less, minimizing inconvenience for residents.
In addition to essential upgrades, the program also offers optional enhancements such as slip-resistant treatment, which further enhances safety and comfort in the home.
The HIP programs are available to eligible households in specific precincts, and interested homeowners can apply directly to the USDA for assistance.
The program also covers other upgrades such as the replacement of pipe sockets, fittings, and the installation of metal grille gates for added security.
By participating in these home improvement programs, homeowners can benefit from the assistance provided by the respective government agencies, ensuring the longevity and functionality of their properties.
It is essential for homeowners to explore these programs to take advantage of the financial support and technical expertise available.
These programs not only improve the quality of living but also contribute to the overall well-being of the community by maintaining and enhancing the value of homes for Singapore citizens.
Eligibility Criteria – Home Development Board
Income requirements for a Home Improvement Program
To be eligible for a Home Improvement Program (HIP), homeowners must meet specific income requirements.
The income limit varies depending on the program, but generally, it is aimed at assisting households with lower incomes.
For example, the “Take 10” program targets households earning less than a certain threshold.
HDB Home Improvement Programme (HIP)
The HDB Home Improvement Programme (HIP) is designed to enhance the living environment in HDB flats and address common maintenance issues.
Eligible homeowners can apply for various improvement items, such as replacing deteriorated spalling concrete, upgrading bathroom fixtures, or installing safety features.
Flat Type and Upgrading Cost
The availability of the HIP and the cost of upgrading may vary depending on the flat type.
For example, rental flats and flats with short leases may have different requirements or limitations.
The cost of upgrading also depends on the chosen improvement items and the complexity of the works.
Spalling Concretes and Other Maintenance Issues
Spalling concrete refers to the deterioration of concrete surfaces, which can weaken the structural integrity of a building.
The HIP includes addressing spalling concrete issues, as well as other maintenance problems commonly found in older flats.
Property Requirements and Completion of HIP Works
The Home Improvement Program is available for public housing, specifically HDB flats.
The program aims to provide optional and ease improvements for homeowners, ensuring that the living environment remains safe and comfortable.
The main upgrading program was introduced in 2007 and has since undergone improvements to better meet the needs of Singaporean households.
Once homeowners are approved for the HIP, they will need to pay for the upgrading works.
However, the cost is heavily subsidized by the government.
The completion of HIP works typically takes a few weeks, depending on the complexity of the upgrades and the number of flats involved.
It’s important to note that the HIP is specifically for Singaporean households.
Singapore Permanent Residents may not be eligible for this particular program but may have other options available to them.
By meeting the eligibility criteria and participating in the Home Improvement Program, homeowners can benefit from the financial support and technical expertise provided.
These programs not only improve the quality of living but also contribute to the overall well-being of the community by maintaining and enhancing the value of homes for Singapore citizens.
Financial Assistance Options
If you are a homeowner considering a Home Improvement Program (HIP) in Singapore, there are various financial assistance options available to help you with the costs.
These options include grants and loans specifically designed to make essential improvements more accessible and affordable.
Here, we will explore the different financial assistance options for HIP and how they can benefit homeowners.
Grants for Home Improvement Programs
One of the financial assistance options for HIP is grants, where essential improvements are fully funded.
These grants are aimed at assisting homeowners in upgrading their flats to ensure better living conditions.
Under the HIP, eligible homeowners can apply for grants to cover the cost of specific improvement items, such as upgrading sanitary fittings, improving accessibility features like ramps or grab bars, or even fire-rated doors for enhanced safety.
These grants ensure that homeowners can make necessary improvements to their homes without incurring significant costs.
Loans for Home Improvement Programs
In addition to grants, homeowners can also opt for loans to finance their HIP projects.
These loans provide an alternative funding option for homeowners who may not be eligible for grants or require additional financial support.
Loans for Home Improvement Programs are typically offered by financial institutions and come with favorable interest rates, making them an affordable option.
Homeowners can use these loans to cover the cost of essential improvements, such as toilet upgrading, portable toilets, fire-rated doors, or even treatment to floor tiles.
These loans ensure that homeowners can access the necessary funds to carry out the required improvements for their homes.
It’s important to note that eligibility criteria apply to both grants and loans for Home Improvement Programs.
Homeowners need to meet specific requirements, such as owning flats built before a certain period or ensuring that the improvements are essential for public health and safety.
Also, for certain improvement items like water test for leaks, homeowners must pass a water test to qualify for the financial assistance.
By taking advantage of these financial assistance options, homeowners can ensure that their homes undergo the necessary improvements for a safer and more comfortable living environment.
Whether it is through grants or loans, these programs provide homeowners with financial support and the means to enhance their homes.
Ultimately, the Home Improvement Program aims to contribute to the overall well-being of the community by maintaining and enhancing the value of homes for Singapore citizens.
How to Apply for a Home Improvement Program
Are you a homeowner in Singapore looking to upgrade your living conditions through the Home Improvement Program (HIP)?
Applying for this program has never been easier.
Here are the steps you need to follow to apply for a Home Improvement Program and enhance your home:
Steps to Apply for a Home Improvement Program
- Check your eligibility: The first step is to ensure that you meet the eligibility criteria for the Home Improvement Program. This includes being a Singapore Citizen, owning a flat in an eligible precinct, and meeting the income ceiling requirements.
- Assess the improvements needed: Evaluate your flat and determine the specific improvements you require. The Home Improvement Program offers various improvement items, such as upgrading sanitary fittings, installing grab bars for elderly-friendly features, or even fire-rated doors for enhanced safety.
- Calculate your monthly instalment: Depending on the improvements needed, calculate the estimated cost and the corresponding monthly instalment. This will help you determine the affordability of the program and plan your budget accordingly.
- Submit your application: Once you have assessed the improvements and calculated the cost, you can proceed to submit your application for the Home Improvement Program. The application can be done online through the official government website or in person at the relevant authorities.
- Wait for approval: After submitting your application, the authorities will review it and determine whether you are eligible for the Home Improvement Program. The approval process may take some time, so be patient during this stage.
- Get the improvements done: Once your application is approved, you can start making the necessary arrangements to carry out the improvements. This may involve hiring contractors or engaging relevant service providers. It is important to adhere to the guidelines and regulations set by the authorities to ensure that the improvements are done correctly and safely.
Documents required for a Home Improvement Program application
When applying for the Home Improvement Program, you will need to provide certain documents to support your application. These documents may include:
- Proof of ownership of the flat in an eligible precinct.
- Proof of Singapore Permanent Resident (SPR) status, if applicable.
- Relevant financial documents, such as bank statements or income tax assessments, to verify your monthly household income.
- Documentation that supports the need for specific improvements, such as medical reports for elderly-friendly features or quotations from contractors for the installation of grab bars.
- Any other supporting documents requested by the authorities.
It is important to note that the Home Improvement Program has specific criteria and requirements for eligibility.
These may include factors such as the age of the flat, the precinct in which it is located, and the cost-sharing ratio between the government and the homeowner.
Additionally, certain improvements may only be eligible for flats that have reached the 60- to 70-year mark.
By following these steps and providing the required documents, homeowners in Singapore can take advantage of the Home Improvement Program to enhance their living conditions.
This program aims to create a more comfortable and safe environment for Singapore Citizens while maintaining the value of homes in eligible precincts.
So why wait? Start your application today and enjoy the benefits of a Home Improvement Program for your home!
Examples of Home Improvement Projects
When it comes to home improvement, there are various projects that homeowners can undertake to enhance their living conditions. The Home Improvement Program (HIP) in Singapore offers a range of improvement items that can be fully funded by the government. Here are some examples of home improvement projects that homeowners can consider:
- Preventing ceiling leaks: Ceiling leaks can be a common issue in older homes. The HIP provides funds to repair and waterproof ceilings, ensuring that homeowners can live comfortably without the worry of water damage.
- Improvement works: The HIP covers essential improvement works such as the replacement of damaged doors and windows, upgrading of sanitary fittings, and the installation of grab bars for elderly-friendly features. These improvements not only enhance the functionality of the home but also promote safety and convenience for the residents.
- Grille gate: Installing a grille gate is an optional improvement package offered by the HIP. This additional security feature provides an added layer of protection to homes, giving homeowners peace of mind.
- Monthly instalments: The HIP offers a financing option where homeowners can pay for the improvement works in monthly instalments. This helps to ease the financial burden and allows homeowners to plan their budget accordingly.
- Compulsory improvements: Certain improvement items under the HIP are deemed essential and must be carried out by homeowners. This ensures that all homes in eligible precincts meet the required standards of safety and functionality.
It is important to note that homeowners should carefully consider the improvement items they choose under the HIP.
The program aims to provide quality improvement items that are essential for the well-being of residents.
By selecting the right improvements, homeowners can create a comfortable and safe living environment for themselves and their families.
Ceiling leaks in a flat can be a real cause for concern.
Not only do they damage the interior of the property, but they also pose a health risk to the occupants.
Waiting for the Home Improvement Programme (HIP) to qualify for assistance can be frustrating, especially when the damage is severe.
In Singapore, the HIP is a government initiative aimed at upgrading and improving the living conditions of HDB flats.
However, the process of qualifying for HIP can be time-consuming.
According to the HDB website, it typically takes around 10 working days for an application to be processed.
During this period, affected residents may have to endure the inconvenience of a leaking ceiling and the associated potential hazards.
The eligibility for the HDB’s Home Improvement Programme depends on several factors, including the age of the block and the number of eligible Singapore citizen households.
Only blocks that meet the criteria are eligible for the programme.
This means that some residents may have to wait longer or even be excluded from the assistance altogether.
Such a situation can be disheartening for those who are already facing the difficulties of dealing with a leaking ceiling.
While the HIP is undoubtedly a valuable initiative, it is essential for the government to streamline the qualification process and ensure that all affected residents receive prompt assistance.
Ceiling leaks should not be taken lightly, and residents should not have to wait for an extended period to solve the problem.
HDB’s Home Improvement Program (HIP) II has been launched to address the key maintenance needs of HDB flats.
Among the residents, there is a growing concern over the wear and tear of their homes as the years go by.
The program aims to ease the burden on residents by providing assistance for essential improvement items.
Under HIP II, 8 to 10 potential blocks have been shortlisted for the program.
The selection process takes into account various factors such as the age and condition of the blocks, as well as the preferences of the residents.
This meticulous selection process ensures that the program targets the block’s eligible singapore citizen households that are most in need of refurbishment.
The implementation of HIP to be completed II will not only enhance the quality of living for the residents but also maintain the value of their homes.
It is reassuring to see the government’s commitment to continually improve the housing conditions in HDB estates.
The selection of the shortlisted blocks for HIP II reflects the authorities’ attentiveness to the needs of the residents and their dedication to ensuring that everyone has a comfortable living environment.
With the implementation of HIP II, residents can look forward to a more pleasant and well-maintained living space, thereby furthering the vision of creating a vibrant, inclusive, and sustainable home for all.
In Singapore, the process of renovating a flat will take 10 can be a long and arduous one, especially for seniors living in HDB flats.
With the introduction of the Home Improvement Programme (HIP), seniors can now receive government assistance in upgrading their flats to ensure safe and comfortable living conditions.
However, the implementation of the HIP is not without its challenges.
One of the key requirements is that at least 75% of the residents in a block must opt for the HIP before it can proceed if at least 75.
This is to ensure that there is sufficient support from the community for the programme.
In cases where the minimum quota is not met, the flat’s upgrading will have to wait until enough residents show their interest.
Additionally, during the second HIP round, tests for leaks to prevent ceiling leaks are conducted to prevent any ceiling leakages.
This is an essential measure to maintain the structural integrity and safety of the flats.
With the aim of providing a conducive living environment for seniors, it is crucial to address the issue of leaks promptly.
By implementing preventive measures and thorough inspections, the government strives to ensure that seniors living in HDB flats can enjoy their homes without the concern of potential water damage or safety hazards.
Ceiling leaks in the flat can be a serious concern for residents.
Not only do they pose a threat to the structural integrity of the building, but they can also cause damage to personal property and create a very uncomfortable living environment.
When such issues arise, it is important to take immediate action to rectify the problem.
However, waiting for a hip to be repaired can be a tedious process.
Typically, it can take up to 10 working days for the repair work to be completed.
This can be particularly frustrating for residents, as it means living with the inconvenience and discomfort of a leaky ceiling for an extended period of time.
Furthermore, when it comes to public housing blocks in Singapore, repairs and maintenance work are prioritized for eligible Singapore citizen households.
While this is understandable, as citizens should, of course, be given priority, it can lead to a longer waiting time for non-citizen residents.
This can often create tension among residents, as the repair process seems to unfairly favor those who are eligible for public housing.
In such situations, it becomes essential for the relevant authorities to communicate openly and transparently with all affected parties, addressing any concerns they may have and providing assurance that the issue will be resolved as soon as possible.
This can help ease some of the frustration and anxiety residents may feel during the waiting period.
Tips for Successful Completion of Home Improvement Projects
To ensure the successful completion of home improvement projects under the HIP, here are some tips to keep in mind:
- Engage reputable contractors: When hiring contractors for the improvement works, it is essential to choose reputable and experienced professionals. This ensures that the quality of work is up to standard and that the improvements are carried out safely and efficiently.
- Follow guidelines from the Housing and Development Board (HDB): The HDB provides guidelines and regulations for the implementation of improvement works. It is important to adhere to these guidelines to ensure that the improvements meet the required standards.
- Communicate with the HDB: If homeowners have any questions or concerns regarding the improvement works, it is advisable to communicate with the HDB. They can provide guidance and clarification on any issues that may arise during the process.
- Plan the schedule: Homeowners should plan the schedule for the improvement works in advance. This includes coordinating with the contractors, ensuring that the necessary permits are obtained, and making arrangements for any temporary accommodations if required.
- Maintain open communication: During the improvement works, homeowners should maintain open communication with the contractors and the HDB. Regular updates and feedback can help to address any issues or concerns that may arise during the process.
By following these tips and utilizing the Home Improvement Program, homeowners in Singapore can successfully enhance their living conditions.
The program not only provides financial support but also ensures that the improvements are carried out to a high standard.
With a comfortable and safe home, homeowners can enjoy a better quality of life for themselves and their families.
= After a detailed exploration of the Home Improvement Program (HIP), it is clear that this initiative plays a critical role in providing subsidized assistance to Singaporean citizens living in HDB flats.
The program aims to enhance the quality of living for seniors and address maintenance issues in older HDB blocks.
The government’s commitment to the HIP, as highlighted in the National Day Rally, showcases the importance placed on supporting seniors and ensuring the longevity of HDB flats.
By subsidizing a significant fraction of the cost, the HIP enables eligible households to proceed with the upgrading works, which typically take around 10 working days to complete.
The HIP not only addresses immediate concerns such as leaks and ceiling issues but also includes essential improvements to enhance the overall living experience.
By conducting a thorough inspection and implementing repairs, the program ensures a safer and more comfortable environment for residents.
Furthermore, the success of the HIP can be attributed to the managing HDB branch’s dedication to overseeing the entire process.
From identifying eligible blocks to managing the full upgrading cost payment, the managing HDB branch plays a crucial role in coordinating the necessary steps and ensuring a smooth implementation of the program.
In order to ensure the well-being and quality of life for its senior residents, the Housing and Development Board (HDB) has introduced a subsidy scheme known as the Home Improvement Programme (HIP).
Under this programme, HDB flats that are at least 10 years old and inhabited by seniors aged 75 and above are eligible for renovations.
The aim of the HIP is to enhance the safety and comfort of these flats, allowing seniors to age in place with peace of mind.
However, it is important to note that in order for the HIP to be implemented, at least 75% of the residents in the block must opt for it.
The HIP is conducted in two rounds, with the first round focusing on essential retrofitting works such as the replacement of pipes, and the second round addressing optional improvements such as installing grab bars.
One key aspect of the HIP is the stringent testing for leaks, as prevention is key to avoiding ceiling leaks, which can pose potential hazards and cause damage to the flats.
Therefore, thorough checks are conducted to identify any existing leaks and address them before the renovations commence.
By addressing potential leaks, the HIP not only enhances the safety of the flats but also ensures that the structural integrity of the building is maintained.
With the implementation of this subsidised programme, the HDB aims to provide a secure and comfortable living environment for its senior residents, ultimately allowing them to age in the familiarity and convenience of their own homes.
In conclusion, the Home Improvement Program (HIP) is an invaluable initiative that prioritizes the well-being and quality of life for Singaporean citizens living in HDB flats.
By providing subsidies and addressing maintenance issues, the program significantly improves the overall living conditions for residents, especially seniors.
The commitment of the managing HDB branch to the HIP demonstrates the government’s dedication to supporting its citizens and ensuring the long-term sustainability of HDB flats.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the Home Improvement Program (HIP)?
The Home Improvement Program (HIP) is a program by the Housing & Development Board (HDB) in Singapore. It aims to upgrade older public housing flats to improve the living conditions and overall quality of life for residents.
What does the term "HIP flat" mean Public Housing?
The term “HIP flat” refers to a public housing flat that is eligible for the Hip program. These are typically older flats built up to 1997 that require upgrading and maintenance.
How long does it take for a flat to undergo HIP?
The duration of the HIP will usually take around 1.5 to 2 years from the start of the project. However, the actual timeframe may vary depending on various factors, such as the size and complexity of the upgrading works.
Will I be provided with temporary toilet facilities during the HIP works?
Yes, temporary toilets will be provided for residents affected by the upgrading works. These toilets will ensure that you have access to sanitary facilities during the renovation period.
What are some of the specific works carried out under the HIP?
The HIP covers a range of different upgrading works. Some examples include the repair of spalling concrete, replacement of entrance doors, installation of elderly-friendly fittings and toilet accessories, as well as the provision of lifts for flats in selected precincts.
How are the costs of the HIP subsidized?
Eligible residents will be subsidized by the government for the upgrading works carried out under the HIP. The government will bear a significant portion of the costs, allowing residents to pay only a fraction of the total upgrading cost.
What happens if my flat is shortlisted for HIP but I do not proceed with the upgrading works?
If at least 75% of the residents in your precinct are in favor of the HIP, and you choose not to proceed with the upgrading works, your flat may be excluded from any future upgrading programs. It is recommended to participate in the HIP to ensure your flat remains in good condition.
Will the HIP include repairs for structural cracks in my flat?
Yes, the HIP covers the repair of spalling concrete and structural cracks in flats. These repairs are essential to maintain the structural integrity of the building and prevent any potential safety hazards.
What is the procedure for the HIP polling period?
The HIP polling period is conducted to gather residents’ votes on whether they wish to proceed with the upgrading works. Each flat has one block vote, and a minimum of 75% of the residents must vote in favor to initiate the HIP for the precinct.
How long do I have to make payment for the 2023 HIP upgrading?
Once the HIP upgrading works are completed, residents will have a payment period of 10 working days or less to settle the remaining costs of the upgrading works that are not covered by the government subsidy.