Guideline: Private Enclosed Space (PES) | Private Roof Terraces and Indoor Recreation Spaces, Balcony, and More in Singapore

by | Sep 30, 2023

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Introduction to Private Enclosed Space PES

Introduction to Private Enclosed Space (PES)

You may have encountered the term Private Enclosed Space (PES) in Singapore’s real estate market.

But what exactly does it mean?

Let’s dive into the details.

What is a Private Enclosed Space (PES)? 

A Private Enclosed Space, commonly called PES, is a unique feature of specific residential properties in Singapore.

It refers to the semi-outdoor or outdoor spaces exclusively allocated to the unit owners.

These spaces can be attached or detached from the unit, providing additional room for relaxation, gardening, or entertainment.

In Singapore, stratum subdivisions are usually applied to condo developments, and the PES is an example of this concept.

This means the unit owner has ownership rights to the semi-outdoor or outdoor areas defined as PES.

Benefits of having a PES in Singapore

Owning a property with a PES in Singapore has several benefits for developers and buyers.

For developers, incorporating PES into their projects allows them to maximize the usage of outdoor spaces.

This is particularly important in land-constrained Singapore, where the Urban Redevelopment Authority encourages developers to optimize their outdoor spaces to enhance the living environment.

For buyers, having a PES adds value to their property.

It provides an extension of indoor living space, offering the opportunity to create personalized outdoor retreats.

Whether setting up a garden, hosting an outdoor party, or simply enjoying fresh air, the private enclosed space allows residents to enjoy the best indoor and outdoor living.

It’s worth noting that the PES is part of the Gross Floor Area (GFA) when determining the total size of the unit.

This means that the PES contributes to the property’s overall length, making it an essential consideration for buyers looking for more spacious homes.

In conclusion, a Private Enclosed Space (PES) in Singapore offers a unique feature for homeowners, allowing them to enjoy outdoor living within the confines of their property.

With its numerous benefits, it’s no wonder that PES has become a sought-after feature in the Singapore real estate market.

Key Takeaways

  1. What is PES?: PES stands for Private Enclosed Space, a unique feature in Singapore’s real estate, offering semi-outdoor or outdoor areas exclusively for unit owners.
  2. Benefits of PES: Owning a property with PES adds value by maximizing outdoor space in land-constrained Singapore, providing room for relaxation, gardening, and entertainment.
  3. Gross Floor Area (GFA): PES contributes to the overall size of a property, impacting the total area and making it a crucial consideration for buyers.
  4. Regulations and Guidelines: The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) sets regulations to ensure orderly development of PES areas, focusing on privacy, safety, and balancing private and common spaces.
  5. Management Corporation Strata Title (MCST): MCST plays a role in maintaining and utilizing PES areas by enforcing house rules and ensuring proper management.
  6. Design and Features: Buyers have flexibility in choosing design options for their PES, but some design choices may be restricted due to development charge or other regulations.
  7. Popular Features: PES designs often include single cover designs, integrating Common Property areas, and adhering to GFA guidelines, enhancing the overall living experience.
  8. Enhancing Privacy and Security: Tips for enhancing privacy include choosing higher floors, soundproofing, and complying with URA’s technical height controls. Security measures include sturdy structures and vertical walls.
  9. Utilizing Your PES: Creative ideas for PES usage include creating semi-outdoor oases, outdoor dining areas, garden retreats, workout spaces, and cozy outdoor lounges.
  10. Maintenance and Upkeep: Regular maintenance, landscaping, building surveys, and cleaning are essential to ensure the PES remains a comfortable and functional space.
  11. Overcoming Challenges: Challenges include development charges, awkward design choices, and MCST regulations. Solutions involve prioritizing functional designs and complying with guidelines.
  12. Cost Considerations: Consider costs by comparing different PES options, analyzing square footage, and factoring in the complete unit cost, planning permission, and space requirements.

Regulations and Guidelines

Regulations and Guidelines

Understanding the rules and regulations for PES in Singapore

Singapore is known for its innovative urban planning, and one unique feature of residential developments is the inclusion of Private Enclosed Spaces (PES).

PES refers to the areas within a residential unit that are enclosed and solely for the homeowner’s use.

It provides an additional level of privacy and customization options for residents.

To ensure the orderly development of PES areas, the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) has set out regulations and guidelines that developers, homeowners, and management corporations must adhere to.

These regulations focus on maintaining a balance between private and shared spaces and ensuring public safety.

Developers wishing to include PES in their residential developments must submit the planning permission applications to the URA.

This ensures that the design proposals align with the guidelines the URA sets.

Pre-approved designs are also available for developers to streamline the application process.

Once the residential units are handed over to buyers, the management corporations of the developments play a crucial role in maintaining and utilizing the PES areas.

House rules are implemented to ensure that residents are aware of their responsibilities and prevent misuse of the PES areas.

The guidelines provided by the URA also cover the management and maintenance of the PES areas to ensure their longevity and functionality.

Guidelines for maintaining and utilizing PES areas

Maintaining and utilizing PES areas requires cooperation between the homeowners and the management corporation of the development.

The management corporation is responsible for the upkeep of the PES areas, ensuring they are clean, safe, and well-maintained.

House rules are established to regulate the use of the PES areas, addressing noise levels, pets, and installing structures or fixtures.

These rules help to create a harmonious living environment and protect the rights and interests of all residents.

Buyers considering purchasing a unit with a PES should familiarize themselves with the guidelines set by the URA and the specific management corporation strata title.

It is essential to understand the permitted use of the PES areas and any restrictions that may be in place.

By following the regulations and guidelines, homeowners and management corporations can ensure that PES areas in residential developments are well-managed and contribute to a vibrant and comfortable living environment for all residents.

Design and Features

Design and Features

Design options for private enclosed spaces

In Singapore, private enclosed spaces (PES) are highly sought after by buyers looking for the perfect blend of indoor and outdoor spaces.

Developers offer various design options to cater to different preferences and needs.

Regarding design, buyers can choose from various floor plans and development options.

Developers may include a design proposal for the PES, considering the space’s overall layout and functionality.

However, it is essential to note that some design choices may be restricted due to development charges or other regulations.

Buyers may need some more comfortable design choices when it comes to PES.

For example, the placement of structural columns or other fixed elements can affect the layout and use of the space.

It is essential for buyers to carefully evaluate the design options and consider how it aligns with their lifestyle and preferences.

Popular features and amenities for PES in Singapore

PES in Singapore offers a range of popular features and amenities, making them a desirable choice for buyers.

The design often includes indoor and outdoor spaces, providing residents with a comfortable living space that connects with the natural surroundings.

One popular feature is the single cover design, which allows residents to enjoy the outdoor spaces without the hassle of maintaining two separate areas.

The Common Property area, such as the garden or pool, is often integrated with the PES, creating a cohesive and visually appealing environment.

Developers also consider the gross floor area ratio (GFA) set by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) when designing PES.

This ensures that the PES is proportionate to the overall development and does not compromise on other essential amenities.

In conclusion, private enclosed spaces offer the best of both worlds with their design and features.

Buyers can customize their PES according to their preferences while enjoying the comfort and convenience of indoor and outdoor spaces in Singapore.

Enhancing Privacy and Security

Enhancing Privacy and Security

Regarding private living spaces in Singapore, one option that offers both privacy and security is a Private Enclosed Space (PES).

A PES is an area within residential buildings exclusively accessible to the unit owner.

This article will explore tips to enhance privacy and security in your PES.

Tips for enhancing privacy in your PES

When it comes to privacy, there are several measures you can take to ensure that your PES remains a secluded and intimate space.

Here are some tips:

  1. Building Foundation: Choosing a unit with a PES located on a higher floor can provide more privacy from neighboring units or passers-by.
  2. Common Wall: If your PES shares a common wall with a neighboring team, consider installing soundproofing materials to minimize noise transmission.
  3. Technical Height Controls: Familiarize yourself with the technical height controls set by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) to ensure that your PES maintains the desired level of privacy.
  4. Ceiling Height: Opt for a higher ceiling height in your PES to create a sense of spaciousness and natural light while maintaining privacy.
  5. Balcony Screens: Install balcony screens or shades to safeguard your privacy by blocking the view from outside.
  6. Fire Safety and Shelter: Ensure that any modifications to your PES comply with fire safety and shelter regulations.
  7. Management Corporation Strata Title (MCST): Understand the MCST rules and regulations regarding using and modifying PES areas to avoid any potential issues.

Security measures to consider for your PES area

Aside from privacy, security is also paramount in your PES area.

Here are some security measures to consider:

  1. Building Structures: Ensure that the structures surrounding your PES, such as walls and fences, are sturdy and well-maintained, providing an added layer of security.
  2. Vertical Walls: To deter unauthorized access, install vertical walls or fences around your PES.
  3. Fire Safety and Shelter: Comply with fire safety regulations to ensure the safety of both your PES and the entire building.
  4. Management Corporation Strata Title (MCST): Familiarize yourself with the MCST guidelines for security measures for PES areas.

By implementing these tips and considering the unique regulations in Singapore, you can enhance both the privacy and security of your Private Enclosed Space (PES) and enjoy a peaceful and secure living environment.

Utilizing your PES

Utilizing your PES

Creative ideas for utilizing your private enclosed space

If you’re fortunate enough to have a private enclosed space (PES) in your Singapore home, there are plenty of creative ways to make the most of it.

Here are some ideas to transform your PES into a comfortable living space, perfect for relaxation or entertaining guests:

  1. Semi-Outdoor Oasis: Convert your PES into a semi-outdoor oasis by adding comfortable outdoor furniture, plants, and lighting. This will create a cozy atmosphere where you can enjoy the fresh air while protecting yourself from the elements.
  2. Outdoor Dining Area: Set up a dining table and chairs on your PES to create an alfresco dining experience. This is especially great for enjoying meals during pleasant weather.
  3. Garden Retreat: Transform your PES into a lush garden retreat by adding potted plants, hanging baskets, and even a small vegetable or herb garden. This will bring a touch of nature to your living space.
  4. Workout or Yoga Space: If you’re into fitness, turn your PES into a workout or yoga space. Install some gym equipment or lay down a yoga mat, and you’ll have a convenient place to exercise.
  5. Outdoor Lounge: Create a cozy lounge area with comfortable seating, cushions, and a coffee table. This will be the perfect spot to relax with a book or enjoy coffee.

Creating a comfortable and functional outdoor living area

Developers in Singapore have recognized the importance of outdoor spaces and have been incorporating private enclosed spaces (PES) into their designs.

These spaces add to the overall living area of a home, making it more comfortable and functional.

Buyers also see the value in PES as it allows them to enjoy the outdoors within the privacy of their own homes.

Management Corporation Strata Title (MCST) guidelines ensure that these PES areas are well-maintained and enhance the overall aesthetics of the development.

The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) has set guidelines on the usage of PES, including the maximum allowable floor area.

Developers can include PES in their projects, but the site cannot be included in the Gross Floor Area (GFA) calculations.

PES spaces are a valuable asset for homeowners in Singapore, providing them with a private outdoor space to relax, entertain, and enjoy the natural surroundings.

With creativity and planning, you can transform your PES into a comfortable and functional outdoor living area that suits your lifestyle and preferences.

Maintenance and Upkeep

Maintenance and Upkeep

Tips for maintaining and cleaning your PES

When you own a private enclosed space (PES) in Singapore, it’s essential to take care of its maintenance and cleanliness to ensure you can fully enjoy the benefits of this unique feature.

Here are some tips to help you maintain and clean your PES effectively.

  1. Regular Maintenance: Perform routine checks to identify any repairs or maintenance needs. This includes inspecting the PES’s flooring, walls, windows, and other structures. Promptly address any issues to prevent further damage.
  2. Landscaping: If your PES includes a garden or landscaped area, maintain it well to enhance the overall appearance of your outdoor space. Trim the plants, remove weeds, and keep the place tidy.
  3. Building Survey: Engage a professional building surveyor to assess the PES periodically. They can identify structural issues, such as cracks or water leaks, and recommend repairs or improvements.
  4. Basement Diaphragm Walls: If your PES is located above a basement, ensure the diaphragm walls are adequately maintained to prevent water seepage. Regular inspections and repairs, if necessary, are crucial to keep the area dry and safe.
  5. Cleaning: Regularly clean the PES, including the flooring, windows, and any furniture or fixtures present. Use appropriate cleaning products and techniques to maintain the functionality and aesthetics of the space.

Landscaping and garden maintenance for PES areas

Landscaping and garden maintenance are essential aspects of managing a PES area.

Here are some tips to help you create and maintain a beautiful outdoor space:

  1. Development of Land: Before starting the landscaping process, understand the guidelines set by the management corporation strata title (MCST) or developer regarding the use and development of the PES area. These guidelines may include restrictions on tree planting or modifications to the existing landscape.
  2. Beyond the PES: Consider extending your landscaping efforts beyond the PES area. This can seamlessly transition between the PES and the surrounding outdoor spaces, enhancing the overall aesthetic appeal.
  3. Bay Windows and Bathroom Windows: If your PES area includes bay windows or bathroom windows, ensure they are regularly cleaned and well-maintained. Trim any plants or trees near these windows to avoid obstruction or damage.

Remember, proper maintenance and landscaping not only enhance the visual appeal of your PES but also contribute to the overall value of your property.

Take pride in owning and caring for your PES; it will become a cherished space for relaxation and enjoyment.

Overcoming Challenges

Overcoming Challenges

Common challenges faced with PES in Singapore

When it comes to private enclosed spaces (PES) in Singapore, there are a few challenges that buyers and developers often encounter.

One of the main challenges is the development charge imposed by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA).

This charge is applicable if the PES is included in the property’s gross floor area (GFA).

Developers must carefully calculate the cost implications of including the PES and decide whether it is worth it.

Another challenge is the awkward design choices that sometimes come with having a PES.

Some buildings have air-conditioning ledges that take up a significant portion of the PES, making it less usable.

In some cases, the shelves are comically huge, removing valuable space that could have been used for outdoor activities.

Condominiums face additional challenges with managing the PES.

The Management Corporation Strata Title (MCST) must ensure that the PES is well-maintained and accessible to all residents.

There may be restrictions on how the PES can be used, such as prohibitions on installing structures that affect the overall aesthetics of the development.

Solutions and tips for overcoming these challenges

To overcome the challenges associated with PES in Singapore, there are some solutions and tips that buyers and developers can consider.

Firstly, when it comes to design choices, developers can prioritize functional building structures and maximize the use of the PES.

This may involve rethinking the placement and size of air-conditioning ledges to ensure they do not encroach on the usable space.

Buyers should also pay attention to the ceiling height of the PES.

Higher ceilings can make the space more open and inviting, allowing for more versatile use.

Buyers and developers need to refer to the URA guidelines and seek proper planning permission when making any modifications or additions to the PES.

This ensures compliance with regulations and avoids potential legal issues.

In conclusion, while PES in Singapore may come with its challenges, with careful planning and adherence to guidelines, buyers and developers can overcome these obstacles and make the most out of this unique feature of their property.

Cost Considerations

When planning to invest in a Private Enclosed Space (PES) in Singapore, it is essential to consider the various costs involved.

From comparing prices to square footage analysis, these factors can impact your decision-making process.

Factors to consider when budgeting for a PES

When budgeting for a PES, there are several factors to keep in mind:

  1. Cost Comparison: Compare the costs of different PES options available in Singapore. This will help you understand the market value and make an informed decision.
  2. Square Footage: Consider the amount of space you need in a PES. Consider the activities you plan to do in the outdoor area and ensure they meet your requirements.
  3. Complete Unit Analysis: Analyze the unit’s overall cost, including the PES. Consider factors like location, amenities, and future potential for capital appreciation.
  4. Planning Permission: Check the guidelines set by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) regarding the usage of PES. Ensure that the PES meets all the requirements to avoid any legal issues.

Comparing costs of different PES options in Singapore

When comparing the costs of different PES options in Singapore, it is essential to consider the following:

  1. PES vs. Air-con Ledges: Some developments offer air-con ledges as an alternative to PES. Compare the costs and benefits of both options to determine which suits your needs better.
  2.  Space to Buyer Ratio: Evaluate the amount of outdoor space provided in the internal area of the condo unit. This will help you ascertain the value for money.
  3. Developer and Buyer Perspective: Understand the viewpoint of both developers and buyers. Developers may charge a premium for PES, while buyers may perceive it as a valuable addition to their living space.

By carefully considering these factors and comparing the costs of different PES options, you can make an informed decision that aligns with your budget and needs.


In conclusion, Private Enclosed Spaces (PES) in Singapore provide an excellent opportunity for homeowners to enjoy private outdoor and semi-outdoor spaces.

Including private roof terraces and indoor recreation spaces offers a unique feature for flat owners to create personalized environments for relaxation and recreation.

The availability of PES is governed by specific regulations and guidelines, including the minimum 1-meter setback from the external wall and the requirement to retain a semi-outdoor character.

These regulations ensure that PES areas have functionality and do not infringe on neighboring properties.

The management and maintenance of PES areas are typically the responsibility of the homeowners’ association or property management company.

This ensures that the spaces are well-maintained and accessible to all residents.

While PES areas can be used for personal enjoyment, there are also opportunities for homeowners to convert these spaces for profit.

For example, some homeowners have transformed their PES into communal recreational areas or even small businesses.

It is important to note that PES areas are part of the total allowable gross floor area (GFA) for development, and their inclusion must comply with the requirements of other relevant agencies, such as the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA).

The overall master plan also guides the control of PES areas.

In summary, PES in Singapore allows homeowners to create private outdoor and semi-outdoor spaces for their enjoyment.

Including private roof terraces and indoor recreation, rooms add value to properties and enhance the overall living experience.

With proper management and adherence to regulations, PES areas can be a valuable asset for homeowners and contribute to Singapore’s vibrant and diverse urban landscape.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a private enclosed space (PES)?

A private enclosed space (PES) refers to a personal outdoor space on the ground floor of a flat that is enclosed by walls or other forms of physical barriers.

It provides residents with an extended area for outdoor activities.

What is a private roof terrace?

A private roof terrace is a designated outdoor space located on a flat’s roof.

It is exclusively for the use of the flat owner and can be used for various purposes such as gardening, relaxing, and hosting gatherings.

Can I have a roof terrace in my flat?

Not all flats are eligible for private roof terraces.

 They are usually found in selected flat types, such as penthouses, where the design allows for constructing a roof terrace.

 Therefore, it is essential to check the specifications of your flat to determine if it is possible to have a roof terrace.

Can I enclose my roof terrace to create an indoor space?

In most cases, enclosing a roof terrace to create an indoor space is not permitted.

 Roof terraces are meant to be open-air areas, and any form of enclosure may require planning permission from the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) and approval from the Building and Construction Authority (BCA).

Are private enclosed spaces and private roof terraces the same?

Private enclosed spaces (PES) and private roof terraces are distinct features.

 PES refers to a ground-floor outdoor space that is enclosed, while private roof terraces are located on the roof of a flat.

 Both provide additional space for residents, but they have different characteristics.

Can I use my private enclosed space for other purposes, such as indoor recreation?

Private enclosed spaces are primarily meant to be outdoor areas.

 However, you may use them for certain types of indoor recreation, provided that the activities comply with relevant regulations and do not cause any disturbance to your neighbors.

Can I rent out my private enclosed space or roof terrace?

Private enclosed spaces and roof terraces are designated for the exclusive use of the flat owner.

 Renting them out for commercial purposes or profit is not allowed.

 These spaces are considered part of the residential unit and should not be used for business activities.

Do I need planning permission from URA for my private enclosed space or roof terrace?

Generally, private enclosed spaces and roof terraces do not require planning permission from the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) as long as they comply with the guidelines and requirements set by URA.

 However, it is advisable to consult with URA to ensure that your plans are within the allowed limits.

What is the Bonus GFA scheme, and how does it relate to private roof terraces?

The Bonus Gross Floor Area (GFA) scheme is a government initiative that allows developers to obtain additional development rights based on the provision of certain features, including private roof terraces.

 The scheme incentivizes the creation of quality living spaces and rewards developers who include such amenities in their projects.

Can I build structures on my private enclosed space or roof terrace?

Generally, building permanent structures on private enclosed spaces or roof terraces is only allowed with the necessary permissions and approvals.

 Any construction or modification should comply with the regulations set by the relevant authorities, such as URA and BCA.

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